David E. Bowen, Caren J. Siehl, and Benjammin Schneider
1987 (republished 1994)
Approaches to enhancing the competitiveness of domestic manufacturing operations are re-conceptualized as ways of restructuring production operations to include attributes of service operations. Competitive advantage can be achieved via a strategy that differentiates the firm on the basis of service attributes. The organizational resources necessary for implementing this strategy are indicated by the emerging literature on service operations. Finally, implications of the meaning of service in manufacturing are discussed relative to conceptualizations of organizational effectiveness, core technology, and the role of the customer in organizational behavior.